Fungal diseases are called mycoses and those affecting humans can be divided into four groups based on the level of penetration into the body tissues. (view – How Common are Fungal Diseases)
See a detailed listing of all fungal infections at our FIT LIFE website
Commoner fungal diseases (Complete listing at LIFE-Worldwide)
How Common are Fungal diseases? (link to PDF). Also see extensive data on fungal infection prevalence and burden at Gaffi.org
|Fungal infection||Number affected||Case fatality rate||Estimated deaths||Comments|
|Cryptococcal meningitis||370,000 in AIDS||15-20% USA
>50% developing world
|250,000 in AIDS||CDC estimate|
|Pneumocystis pneumonia||>400,000 in AIDS
>100,000 in non-AIDS
|~15% in AIDS with best treatment
~50% in non-AIDS
|>200,000 in AIDS
|Most cases in Africa not diagnosed and 100% mortality|
|Disseminated Histoplasmosis||~100,000||15-30%, if diagnosed and treated||>80,000||Most common in the Americas|
|Invasive aspergillosis||>300,000||~30% mortality if treated in HIC -in AIDS
~50% non-AIDS, in HIC
|>30,000 in AIDS
>125,000 in non-AIDS
|Many missed diagnoses globally|
|Invasive candidiasis||>750,000||~40% mortality treated||>350,000|
|Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis||>3,000,000||~15-40% mortality in HIC
~15% mortality in the developed world
|>450,000 in non hospitalised populations||Under-diagnosed and mistaken for tuberculosis|
|Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS)||>6,500,000||<1% but no good figures.||350,000 – 489,000 asthma deaths
~50% related to SAFS
|Total||~13,000,000||1,600,000||Probably a significant underestimate|
Treating and caring for patients with fungal diseases is becoming an increasing economic burden. Estimated numbers of patients who will need expensive antifungal drugs for some of the life-threatening fungal illnesses are summarised here.
Candidaemia infections occur can be predicted at around 300,000 worldwide per year – with a mortality of 30-55%.
Invasive aspergillosis can occur in different patients groups- so around 10% of new leukaemic cases will go on to develop invasive aspergillosis – so 30,000 per year. Of stem cell transplants – 54,000 are carried out in USA, UK, Europe and Japan annually, of which 5,400 will need treatment for aspergillus infection.
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -1.2% of these will need antifungals for aspergillosis- 216,000 per year. Over 50% of invasive aspergillosis patients will die from their infection – even with treatment.
In AIDS patients 1million contract cryptococcal meningitis resulting in 600,000 deaths – 70% of which are in sub-saharan Africa.
Less fatal infections but which affect large numbers of people worldwide include cutaneous fungal infections, nail infections and athletes foot – affects some 1.5 billion people – or 25% of the worlds population.
Tinea capitis -or hair infection- which is common in young children is predicted to affect some 200 million worldwide.