Penicillium marneffei can cause a life-threatening whole-body infection. Most infections caused by this fungus occur in AIDS patients and it affects people living in or visiting southeast Asia and southern China. Research suggests that infection with this fungus occurs by inhalation of spores from environmental sources such as soil. Usually patients initially have a chronic illness with low-grade fever, weight loss and one or more skin lesions, the disease can then spread to many organs including the liver spleen, lungs kidney and bone marrow. Successful treatment has been achieved with the antifungal drug amphotericin B with and without the addition of flucytosine. Treatment with the antifungal drug itraconazole has also been successful, however treatment with another antifungal drug fluconazole has been associated with a high failure rate.